Due in large part to the existence of different types of climates, Spain is the European country with the largest and most varied biodiversity. Spain has more than 200,000 km2 protected areas inhabited by various species of flora and fauna, including different endemic species. Our country is home to habitats that allow the life of species that are recognized throughout the world.
In this Green Ecology article, we analyze examples of endemic species of Spain.
The Iberian lynx is one of the most threatened and beautiful felines in the world. It has populations in the Montes de Toledo and in the Sierra Morena, especially within the Doñana National Park, where it lives, hunts and breeds in freedom. According to the latest data, between these two larger populations and other more isolated ones, there are a total of 600 specimens, which makes it one of the main endemic species in Spain in danger of extinction.
Its most characteristic features are pointed ears and sideburns that hang from its cheeks. It is a medium-sized lynx that feeds on rabbits and some birds. Given his highly threatened species status, has an important recovery program that has been developed in recent decades.
In the following article you can discover the 21 animals in danger of extinction in Spain.
The Iberian wolf is a species of wolf that is seriously threatened. Formerly, it inhabited the entire Iberian Peninsula, although currently only it is found almost exclusively in the northern part, mainly north of the Duero. They are medium-sized wolves, which feed mainly on large herbivores such as roe deer and deer, but also on wild boars. They are animals that stand out for their high intelligence and that have been highly stigmatized and persecuted by hunters and ranchers, fearful that they will destroy their livestock. Undoubtedly, the excessive hunting of the Iberian wolf is the main cause that is in danger of disappearing.
The Iberian imperial eagle was one of the birds that was among the threatened species, but it has been recovering due to the conservation programs. They differ from other eagles in that they are not migrants, but remain in their areas and defend them. Its largest population center is in Andalusia and they feed on rabbits, foxes and rodents, but they can also feed on dead animals.
The imperial eagle is the best example of how a good recovery program and social awareness can reverse bad practices and population problems of certain species.
It lives mainly in rocky areas of the southeast of the country. They have very strong hooves and muscles, which allow them to adhere and hold onto rocks, giving them great ability to climb. They are herbivorous animals, which feed on all kinds of plants. Like many of the species found on this list, the ibex is also falling drastically in population, mainly due to their natural predators and excessive hunting.
This species of lizard inhabits all over Spain in stony and rocky areas and they feed on beetles, ants, bed bugs and other insects. They are ovoviviparous and very abundant animals.
These urodelos amphibians inhabit streams, fountains and clean waters without fish, where they feed on small crabs, earthworms, water worms, and sometimes small vertebrates. They are nocturnal animals.
This endemic mole of Spain, differs from the European top in its smaller size, a more elongated and narrow head and one eyes completely covered with hair.
Its largest population lives in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in the central system. It is a small animal, about 4 cm in length and 6 grams in weight. It has dark brown hair and yellowish white in the belly area.
Some endemic plant species in Spain are:
It is an endemic tree of the subbetic mountain ranges and Sierra Nevada. It is also known as Sierra Nevada Scots pine. This species of pine can reach 30 meters in height and 5 meters in circumference, living up to 10 years.
This endemic oak species in Spain is threatened by habitat loss. It is a hybrid oak between the downy oak (Quercus humilis) and the gall (Quercus faginea), which has intermediate characteristics between the two.
It is an endemic oak of the Cantabrian mountain range. It is present in Asturias, Castilla y León and part of the Turolense Iberian system. It has leaves similar to chestnut (Quercus robur), but it lives mainly in siliceous soils.
It is an endemic plant of the Iberian Peninsula. It lives in the mountains of central and southern Spain and Portugal, mainly in understory of holm oaks, melojares, oak and cork oak forests.
It is an endemic plant of the Mediterranean area and the Canary Islands. It is found living in farmland, bushes and river banks.
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