Peru is a country with enormous biological diversity. So much so, that in its territory you can find up to 84 of the 104 ecosystems that exist throughout the planet, that is, almost 80%. Thanks to this spectacular percentage, Peru has entered the list of the countries with the most ecosystems on Earth. Throughout its territory, they can be recognized 11 ecoregions different, each with different characteristics.
If you want to see with us the different ecoregions of Peru and learn everything about them, join us in this Green Ecologist article.
The ecoregion of the tropical sea of Peru it is located in a small segment of the north coast of the country. It has warm waters that promote the formation of clouds, which end up pouring their waters in the form of rains on the coast of Piura and Tumbes. It has abundant vegetation, and with various species of flora and fauna that are not found in colder waters, such as the mangrove or mangrove, a unique species here. Among the fauna, the beautiful shark, turtles, the tumbes crocodile and various crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs stand out. Its temperature throughout the year ranges between 19ºC and 23ºC.
In this other Green Ecologist article we will talk to you about the Peruvian Sea or Mar de Grau: characteristics and animals.
This area is strongly influenced by the Humboldt current, which goes from the border with Chile in Tacna to Punta Pariñas. Its waters come from Antarctica and the southernmost part of America, so they are much colder than those of the tropical sea. Is about very biologically rich waters, which is why they are sometimes called "plankton soup", and their temperature avoids precipitation, favoring instead the formation of fogs in cold months.
Its temperature ranges between 13ºC and 17ºC. It offers rocky shores, and there are also mangroves and animal species such as cetaceans, sea lions, Humboldt penguins, anchovies and white turtles, among others.
It extends along the coast, from Tacna in the south to Piura in the north. It is of warm temperatures in the summer and humid winter months, a season in which it is common to find the so-called garuas, dense mists that prevent the passage of sunlight. In its relief you can find elevations or hills, which make a refuge for the local flora and fauna. As is usual in a desert, it has little biodiversity, but until 52 rivers they cross their territory, giving life to the lands in their journey.
Its altitude ranges from 0 to 1,000 meters above sea level and its temperature is around 18ºC, offering an annual variation of about 6ºC. The rains are scarce, with a level of precipitations that stays below the 150 mm. Between pacific desert flora In some areas, gallery forests, tilansial forests and crops such as mango, olive, melon or cotton stand out. According to the pacific desert faunaKestrels, harriers, herons, snakes and bats can be found here, as well as carachitas and puddles.
Another of the ecoregions of Peru is the area known as equatorial dry forest. It is found on the north coast and is made up of plants with the ability to adapt to desert climate. Its altitude ranges from 0 to 2,800 meters above sea level, and its temperature remains between 23ºC and 24ºC. It includes animals such as the gray deer, the white-winged turkey, the coastal fox and the anteater, as well as birds such as the tumbes hummingbird.
It is a small area that is very close to the sea, in the heart of Tumbes. Has a abundant vegetation and offers a very humid tropical climate, with the rainy season between December and March. Its altitude remains below 1,000 meters above sea level. In this Peruvian ecoregion there are a great variety of animal species, such as armadillos, rabbits, tarpon and boas constrictors.
It is located in the western part of the Andes mountains. It is a rugged territory with high mountains and precipices, as well as fertile rivers and valleys. The climate of the steppe mountains It is sunny and dry, although on the contrary there is a cold climate at night. In addition, this Peruvian ecoregion stands out for being the home of the national flower of Peru, the cantuta.
Learn much more about what is the steppe mountains, its flora and fauna with this other article from Green Ecologist.
The area known as the puna is a high altitude ecoregion. In fact, because of this, its climate is very extreme. The climate in this part of Peru is very cold from its lowest area to 5,000 meters above sea level and, from this height, that is, from 5,000 meters above sea level to its highest point, the weather can be considered icy. In addition, the puna has Andean-Patagonian fauna.
The ecoregion of Peru known as the moor It is located in the Piura mountains and in Cajamarca, at an altitude above 3,500 meters above sea level. Its relief is steep and its climate is cold and humid, with some valleys that have a somewhat warmer climate.
Tropical rain forests, with a huge biological diversity and in which most of the species of flora and fauna of the world inhabit. It has a hot and humid climate, and there are large rivers such as the Amazon, the Ucayali and the Madre de Dios.
In this other article we will talk about the high jungle: characteristics, flora and fauna.
The palm savanna or chaqueña, is located in the eastern part of the department of Madre de Dios, next to the border with Bolivia, and consists of a large plain of palm trees and tall grasses in the middle of the rainforest. It shares the hot and humid climate of the jungle itself, with a rainy season in summer.
If you want to read more articles similar to The ecoregions of Peru and their characteristics, we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category.