The climates that we can find on Earth are very varied and, each of them, has its own characteristics, as well as its geographical and thermal characteristics. One of the most important is the so-called tropical climate which, as its name suggests, is located mainly near the tropics. However, the tropical climate has many more elements that make it one of the most interesting that can be found on the entire surface of our planet. If you want to delve a little deeper into what is the tropical climate and its main characteristics, keep reading Green Ecologist and we will tell you.
The tropical climate is close to the tropical regions, from where it receives its name, as well as in the equatorial zones of the planet. However, to be more exact, the correct thing would be to describe it as the climate that occurs between the equator and a latitude of 23 degrees, both north and south.
In this way, it is a climate that extends like a belt throughout the entire globe. It is located in the north of South America and part of Central America, central Africa, and the archipelagos that separate Asia from Australia, as well as some areas of the Indian subcontinent, the region of Southeast Asia and some small areas of northern Australia.
The main defining characteristic tropical climate is its temperature. For most authors, the most important thing about this climate is that it is a climate where temperatures never drop below 18ºC. In fact, another of the characteristic elements of the tropical climate, logically caused by these high temperatures, is that these are regions where frost never occurs, with the exception of the highest mountainous points that, although they are located in the geographical area of the tropical climate, constitute small islands with a mountainous climate, defined by their height and not by their latitude.
This high temperature throughout the year is mainly due to the fact that, being located in tropical and equatorial regions, receive solar radiation in a perpendicular or almost perpendicular way throughout the year. In this way, very high temperatures are reached, although the thermal difference between day and night is also very large.
Are high temperatures they also carry a high water evaporation, which leads to the formation of clouds and the presence of almost continuous and very abundant rainfall throughout the year. In addition, to this effect of heat we must add another element that further increases the presence of rain, which is that it is located right in the natural convergence zone between both poles. This means that, when the cold winds from the hemisphere where it is winter, converge with the warm winds from the opposite hemisphere where it is summer, the formation of clouds increases, causing even more rains in addition to those that occur naturally by the high evaporation. In this way the heavy and frequent rains they constitute another of the most determining characteristics of this type of climate.
In this phenomenon of the evaporation of water in large quantities, the large amount of vegetation in these areas, both forests and jungles, plays a vital role. Learn in this other article by Green Ecologist How vegetation influences the climate to better understand everything that we have just explained.
On the other hand, although it is called a tropical climate as a whole, in reality, the most accurate thing would be to talk about different types of tropical climates, since, according to their characteristics, we can find different types that are adapted to the characteristics of the geography where they are.
The tropical monsoon climate is characterized by the presence of monsoons, which are very abundant rains that are concentrated once a year and are formed by very humid winds from the oceans that, upon reaching the mainland, discharge in the form of abundant rainfall, which can lead to natural disasters and an economic impact and considerable staff if proper action is not taken. This tropical climate is characterized in turn by the presence of jungles and areas with extensive vegetation, since plants and trees attract rain.
The equatorial tropical climate is characterized by having an average temperature that never falls below 23ºC, so it is about the warmer subclimate that we will find in tropical regions. In addition, it also has a dry season that is not usually very long, compared to another of rains that, in general, stands out for its greater length in time compared to the dry season. It is characterized by having extensive and lush tropical forests, mainly tropical forests.
Finally, the tropical savanna climate is characterized by being the driest climate of the three tropical subclimates. In this case, the dry season predominates over the rainy season, which makes it a climate where the ecosystems that we are going to find are not forests but bed sheets. In addition, this subclimate is usually affected by the winds, which instead of blowing from the sea, tend to come from inland areas of the continent, which increases the dryness of the areas, despite being located in tropical regions from a geographical point of view.
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