Agriculture encompasses the knowledge and skills that allow us to work the land to cultivate it and obtain goods from it. In this Green Ecologist article we are going to talk about the extensive agriculture, what is it, its characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.
Extensive agriculture is one that focuses on taking advantage of the natural resources that the area offers and can be defined as the opposite of intensive agriculture. While the latter focuses on maximizing soil production with all available means (labor, chemicals, technology), extensive agriculture opts for, as we have said above, take advantage of the resources available to the area.
Given that the extensive agriculture achieves a production per hectare much lower than that achieved with intensive agriculture, it is developed in large areas and extension, in order to obtain an acceptable total productivity.
This type of agriculture is typical, either of poor countries or areas that do not have the human or technological resources to carry out other types of operations, or in areas where the soil is poor or arid. It is also possible to find extensive agricultural holdings in areas that have large plots of land, either due to their low need for labor or as eco-friendly option or environmental, since extensive agriculture can be much more sustainable in the long term, thus assuming less impact on the environment. In some areas, extensive agriculture is used to combat eutrophication, which consists of the excessive accumulation of nutrients in the waters and ends up assuming the death of a large part of the ecosystem at the end of its process, which is a serious environmental problem. Here you can read more about What is eutrophication.
It is very common, due to characteristics of extensive agriculture, which is related to the Rainfed agriculture, thus creating farms that depend on local rainfall and organic fertilizers, instead of being founded on large numbers of workers or the need for a lot of industrial machinery.
Some of the most common crops that can be found of this type are legumes, cereals, vegetables and fruit trees:
The main advantage of extensive agriculture It is their lower demand on technical and human resources, which allows a few people to run large farms, thus being able to obtain sufficient profits despite their low relative productivity.
It is also a type of agriculture that can be organic and low environmental impact, although this is not always the case. Many modern countries with great resources carry out a more technical extensive agriculture that focuses on obtaining agricultural products with maximum environmental sustainability, fighting against effects such as eutrophication. In this other Green Ecologist article you can see more about organic farming cultivation techniques.
Some crops, such as olive trees, produce a higher yield in the extensive rainfed agricultureSince its fruits have a lower water content, a greater quantity of oil can be obtained from them.
As is evident, the most important disadvantage of extensive agriculture is that, unlike intensive agriculture, it takes time to farm. longer to provide financial benefits.
What's more, extensive agriculture requires large areas of land to work, in order to compensate for its low productivity per hectare.
Another disadvantage of extensive agriculture is that it is much more affected by contingencies with the local climate. Droughts or frosts unexpected can cause huge losses and, for this reason, it is more limited when developing in certain areas, with tropical climates and the temperate Mediterranean climate being the most common and suitable for its application.
Thus, as we have been able to see throughout the article and as a summary, the main differences between intensive and extensive agriculture are:
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