Jungles, also known as rainforests or jungles, are very important biomes since they provide much of the oxygen we need to live. Structured vertically in different floors or levels, the flora and fauna that shelter the jungles is very diverse and abundant, which responds to climatic conditions strongly marked by abundant rainfall and generally warm temperatures.
If you want to delve into the biotic and abiotic factors of the forestKeep reading this Green Ecologist article where you can discover what the biotic factors of the jungle are, what abiotic factors characterize it and also the different types of forests that exist based on altitude, latitude and humidity.
Located in the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, the jungles have become ideal settings for the development of life; therefore, they are considered hotspots or biodiversity hotspots. In this way, biotic factors of forests they are very diverse.
There are different types of forests, each one characterized by certain climatic conditions that have led to the development of one type of vegetation or another. However, they all have in common the great richness of species of flora that they harbor, the majority being woody plants.
Thanks to the vertical stratification, this flora of the jungle is distributed in different floors or levels that favor the diversity of habitats, among which it is worth highlighting:
The diversity, abundance and distribution of the species of fauna of the forest is strongly influenced by the peculiarities of the vegetation. Such is this that, on each floor it is possible to find different species of fauna, with the particularity that it is in the trees where most of the jungle animals live, as they are the most abundant type of vegetation.
In this sense, it is possible to find parrots or harpy eagles in the emerging area; flying squirrels, chameleons, toucans, monkeys or tree frogs in the canopy; arboreal pangolins, toads, sajinos or turtles in the understory; trunk rats, worms, ants or anteaters in the lower layer of the understory. Here you can learn more about What animals live in the rainforest.
You can read more about this topic in this other article on Biotic factors: what they are, characteristics, classification and examples.
The abiotic factors or environmental conditions that most influence the development and metabolism of living beings in the jungle are:
Solar radiation is the only source of energy that plants use to carry out photosynthetic activity. In the jungle, the vegetation of the upper strata is exposed to solar radiation all year round, favoring its development. In response to this exposure, many plants have adaptations to avoid water stress. For example: in larger plants, the leaves are smaller to avoid loss of water by direct exposure to light. However, understory plants, which do not receive as much direct light, have larger leaves to take advantage of all the light. In addition, it should be noted that, since most of the light is absorbed in the uppermost layers, in this ecosystem we find many epiphytes that grow on larger plants to have a greater exposure to sunlight.
Atmospheric humidity is a factor that determines the development of animals more than that of plants, being for the latter an important resource. In these ecosystems, the relative humidity (R.H.) is high, normally higher than 80% vapor.
Temperature is the most important ecological factor, since in general, as the speed of metabolic processes increases, the speed of metabolic processes increases. In the jungle, with an average annual temperature of 25ºC, humidity levels remain high and, consequently, living beings show rapid growth. In the case of animals, since they do not need to expend body energy in maintaining a warm temperature, they use it to reproduce more frequently, which explains the great biodiversity that we can find in the jungles.
Plants obtain water and mineral nutrients from the soil and, although most of them need to absorb the same essential elements, their proportion and fate is different, so the mineral composition of plant tissues varies from one species to another.
In the jungles, the soil is not very fertile, as it is subject to chemical weathering. In this sense, the high temperatures favor the processes of decomposition of organic matter and the nutrients in many cases are washed by the intense rains. The latter causes an acidification of the soil, with high concentrations of aluminum and iron oxides, which gives them a reddish color.
To learn more about the biotic and abiotic factors of an ecosystem or biome, we encourage you to read these other articles by Green Ecologist about Difference between biotic and abiotic and Abiotic factors: what they are, characteristics and examples.
There are different types of forests according to some factors of the climate of the forests, such as: altitude, humidity or latitude.
Mainly we can differentiate 3 types of forests:
Mainly we can differentiate 3 types of forests:
Mainly we can differentiate 5 types of forests:
In this other summary we will tell you much more about the Types of forests and their characteristics.
If you want to read more articles similar to Biotic and abiotic factors of the rainforest, we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category.