9 natural regions of Venezuela - Summary and map

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Venezuela is a Latin American country with a privileged geographical position that has been worthy of hundreds of species. It is among one of the 17 megadiverse countries on the planet, occupying the seventh position on the list. Biodiversity in Venezuela is home to more than 70% of the world's biodiversity, and this is due to its vibrant and varied natural regions. They are identifiable by their natural and geographical limits and by the differences in their climates and vegetation.

In this Green Ecologist article we will guide you on a map visit to the natural regions of Venezuela so that you know why this country has such valuable natural resources.

Guayana Region

Also known as the South Orinoco Region, the Guayana region consists of the largest natural region of VenezuelaTherefore, it encompasses two different types of ecosystems: savanna to the north and jungle to the south. This forest is one of the most important for carbon absorption on the entire planet. Despite the variation in its ecosystems, the predominant climate is a warm tropical climate, with temperatures averaging 27 ° C, varying only due to the presence of rains depending on the area.

From this large size derives the variation of its vegetation, which can range from xerophytic to hydrophilic. It contains steep plateaus and vertical walls called tepui, reliefs of Venezuela unique in the world. It also contains one of the largest water reserves on the planet, since the Orinoco River and the Caroní River meet in the region and generate several rivers.

The great potential of the area has made it a target for hydroelectric, mining and steel industries and even for the extraction of precious stones such as emeralds and diamonds. These natural resources of Venezuela positioned it for many years within the countries with the most power at the international level. The states of Venezuela that are in the Guayana region are Delta Amacuro, Bolívar and Amazonas. The region is bounded by Brazil and the Orinoco, Negro and Atabapo rivers.

If you want to know more about how mineral extraction affects the environment, do not hesitate to read Ecologist Verde's article.

Los Llanos Region

It is distinguishable by mainly containing grasslands and plains at low elevations, at the foothills of the Andes. It has numerous rivers fed by the constant rains that it receives, thus generating very good advantages for the crop. It is divided into Llanos Altos, to the north of the region and, to the south, Llanos Bajos. It extends through the states of Portuguesa, Cojedes, Apure, Guárico, Barninas and Anzpátegui.

Andes Region

It represents the bifurcation of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, which is divided into the Cordillera de Mérida and the Sierra de Perija. It is characterized by cloudy jungles with special flora, like unique orchids. The highest peaks, up to 3,000 meters, get to receive snow. At these high points, the temperature reaches 0 ° C. However, in lower altitude areas the temperature can reach 32 ° C. The region begins from the state of Táchira and extends to Zulia, Mérida, Barinas, Apure, Trujillo and Portuguesa. It is physically divided by a great geographic depression that generates the Sierra de Mérida and the Sierra del Norte.

Lake Maracaibo region

It is formed around Lake Maracaibo, the largest in all of South America. There are those who consider it more a semi-enclosed bay, since it has an exit to the Caribbean Sea. The temperature is about 25 ° C. Being also the largest oil field, provides Venezuela with great global importance within the oil industry. Here you can find out how oil is formed.

It has a great variety of ecosystems, such as mountain ranges to the east and west with flat and undulating areas. The south receives the waters of the lake, forming swamps and flat aquifer deposits. Here a unique phenomenon occurs in the world: the Catatumbo lightning, where lightning and thunder are generated almost continuously. Due to the geographical position, the clouds are at great heights, to which are added night winds that generate a difference in temperatures, forcing the lightning to descend abruptly. In this way, constant lightning bolts of enormous length are created. This process produces an important contribution of ozone; so important that certain scientists have seen fit to maintain the ozone layer.

To learn about the importance of the ozone layer, visit these Green Ecologist articles on Why the ozone layer is so important and How we can take care of the ozone layer.

Insular Region of Venezuela

The insular region of Venezuela refers to the 311 small islands Venezuelans to the north of the country scattered throughout the Caribbean Sea, which includes the Venezuelan federal agencies and Nueva Esparta. This region is completely paradisiacal, with a warm tropical climate, little rainfall, light colored sand and dolphins in turquoise waters, but some islands can also have arid climates. They can present mountains or plains, where cloud forests develop at high altitudes.

Lara-Falcón Formation Region

Also known as the Coriano System Region, it is located in the north of the country, and corresponds to the point where the Andes mountain range becomes the Costa mountain range. Large sand dunes stand out in Médanos del Coro, the only desert in Venezuela. It has several saws but small in size. Being on the coast of the Caribbean Sea, it has coastal plains and maritime valleys. Here is the Paraguaná peninsula. This coast of Venezuela is also characterized by the Gulfs of Venezuela and Coro.

If we go through its lands and stand on its mountain ranges, we see that it has deciduous forests with temperatures of approximately 21 ° C. In low-lying areas, the vegetation is xerophilous with high temperatures reaching up to 30 ° C accompanied by little rain. Within this formation there are two depressions, that of Turbio-Yaracuy through which the Yaracuy River flows, and that of Barquisimeto-Carora with limestone rock deposits and which gives way to the formation of caves.

Learn more about deciduous forests: characteristics, flora and fauna in this other Green Ecologist article.

Region of the Cordillera de la Costa

It is also known as the eastern mountain range, which is the eastern side of the Cordillera Caribe and runs along the northern coast of Venezuela. The reliefs that make it up were originated by elevations and tectonic movements. To this day, these reliefs still exist and continue generating earthquakes. We advise you to read about the Earthquake: what it is, how it occurs and types and the Difference between earthquakes, tremors and earthquakes.

Central Cordillera Region

The Central Mountain Range, or also known as the Serranía del Interior, has its origin about 12 million years, about. It all started when, 80 million years ago, the Serranía del Litoral in Venezuela began to be born. Millions of years later and thanks to a seismic process, the Central Mountain Range was born when it separated from the Coast.

On the other hand, we also highlight the presence of the Cariaco basin, which visually divides both regions on the Caribbean Sea. It is located along the entire coast of northern Venezuela to the depression of the Unare River, in the east, and reaching its highest point at 2,765 meters above sea level at the peak of Naiguatá.

Deltaic System Region

This region is delimited by the mouth of the Orinoco River, with numerous fluvial branches connected to the Caribbean Sea. Among these secondary rivers are the Rio Grande and the Mánamo and Piacoa streams, among others. Originated ago 10,000 million years by the rise in sea level and by the dragging of sediments that were deposited into channels that persist today in the form of rivers. The Deltaic System region is rich in natural resources and is used for gas pipelines, oil zones and gas exploration. Its climate is warm tropical with temperatures of approximately 25 ° C.

If you want to continue getting to know Venezuela, don't miss these Green Ecologist articles where you can find out the main environmental problems in Venezuela or 22 animals in danger of extinction in Venezuela.

If you want to read more articles similar to Natural regions of Venezuela, we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category.

  • Cárdenas, A. and Carpio, R. (2000). Geography of venezuela. Caracas: Editorial Fund of the Libertador Experimental Pedagogical University
  • Kammesheidt, L. (1999). The role of population growth and land-use policy in deforestation: a case study in the western Venezuelan plains. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242135146_The_role_of_population_growth_and_land-use_policy_in_deforestation_a_case_study_in_the_western_Venezuelan_plains
  • Reyes, A., and Olmos, A. (2012) Orinoco Delta. Available at: https://bibliofep.fundacionempresaspolar.org/media/16958/geo_u7_l171_delta_procesos_formativos.pdf
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