Flora and fauna of Castilla-La Manda - Photos and examples

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Castilla-La Mancha is one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain, with a total of 79,463 km². In its territory there are different ecosystems with a great diversity of fauna and flora. These ecosystems constitute one of the most extensive and diverse catalogs of the Iberian Peninsula. The ecosystems of Castilla-La Mancha encompass more than 50 wetlands with great environmental, scientific and landscape value.

If you want to know more about the flora and fauna of Castilla-La ManchaContinue reading this interesting article by Ecologist Verde in which we will show you both the vegetation of Castilla-La Mancha and its animals.

Characteristics of the flora and fauna of Castilla-La Mancha

To begin with, it should be noted that there are more than 3.5 million hectares that make up the vegetation of Castilla-La Mancha, so we can speak of an occupation of around 45% of the entire territory of the autonomous community. It should be noted that, in 1980, the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Program designated the Mancha Húmeda de Castilla-La Mancha Biosphere Reserve. Next, we are going to detail some of the most representative characteristics that make up the ecosystems of Castilla-La Mancha:

  • The species of flora and fauna of Castilla-La Mancha are adapted to both the Mountain weather like to Mediterranean climate indoor, since they are the two predominant climates.
  • The flora found in the Mediterranean climate is formed, above all, by trees such as holm oak and pine.
  • The flora of the mountain climate appears in the lower areas of the mountain with arboreal and shrub species, and there are also species that are found near the rivers.
  • The fauna in the inland Mediterranean climate zones has been distributed according to the degree of humidity.
  • The mountain fauna differs between the dry zone and river species.

In Green Ecologist you can learn more about What are Biosphere Reserves with examples. If not, you may also be interested in knowing how many climates there are in Spain.

Flora of Castilla-La Mancha

In this section, we will talk in greater depth about some species of plants in Castilla-La Mancha:

Holly (Ilex aquifolium)

Holly is a shrub that can sometimes grow to be tree-like, reaching exceed 10 meters. Its leaves are glossy with spiny edges and dark green. It should be noted that these are very hard leaves, with a length of about 5 to 9 cm and perennial. Its flowers are white and its fruits are red, the size of a pea that serve as food for rodents, birds and herbivores. Holly wood is highly prized for its toughness for joinery, turnery and marquetry. It is protected in some areas of Europe.

Holm oak or holm oak (Quercus ilex)

Holm oak is representative in areas where there is a continental climate and a Mediterranean climate. They are resistant to both high and low temperatures. This species can reach up to 30 meters and it has a wide, dense and rounded crown. Their trunk is black when they are young and gray when they are more developed. The leaves are dark-colored perennials and their fruits in acorn shape. The wood is used to make tools, flooring and in joinery, turnery or marquetry, as it is very hard and solid. It grows in all types of terrain, except those that are flooded, very sandy and saline.

Gall oak (Quercus faginea)

Native to North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. It is a deciduous species with an average height of 20 meters, with a brownish-gray bark, simple leaves between 3 and 15 cm long and its fruit is acorn. They live between 500 and 600 yearsThey are very resistant to strong climatic changes and we can find them at a height of up to 1,900 meters. It grows in any type of soil, whether poor or rich, but it does need more humidity than other similar species. The species wood is used as fuel, and its leaves and fruits to feed livestock. In addition, this species of vegetation in Castilla-La Mancha is used in soil restoration plans.

Other species of flora of Castilla-La Mancha

So that you can discover more species of vegetation in Castilla-La Mancha, here is a list of some of the most common in the autonomous community:

  • Black poplar or black poplar (Populus nigra)
  • Reed or common reed (Arundo donax)
  • Cattail or cattail (Typha latifolia)
  • Juniper (Juniperus communis)
  • Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior)
  • Is (Fagus sylvatica)
  • Rockrose or sticky rockrose (Cistus ladanifer)
  • Masiega (Cladium mariscus)

If you want to know in detail what are the Holly Care and the Common Ash Care, do not hesitate to read the articles of Green Ecologist.

Fauna of Castilla-La Mancha

Next, we will talk in greater detail about some species of animals in Castilla-La Mancha.

Golden Eagle (Eagle Chrysaetos)

The golden eagle has a 2.27 meter wingspan, being the largest eagle in the territory. They are light and dark brown in color and their legs are covered with feathers. Although it stands out for inhabiting the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha, we can also find it distributed throughout the area of the Pyrenees and other mountain ranges. Are sedentary birdsAlthough the youngest do travel enormous distances during the winter season. They are hunters and their prey include rabbits, hares, pigeons and corvids, although sometimes they also feed on carrion.

If you want to know more about the golden eagle, do not hesitate to read this article by Ecologist Verde where we explain why the golden eagle is in danger of extinction.

Common squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris)

It is a small mammal that can measure between 19 and 24 cm and weigh up to approximately 35.5 grams. It is elongated and narrow body, with a long, hairy tail. Its belly is white and its back can vary in color between dark brown, bright brown or reddish. It is normally found inhabiting shady areas of coniferous forests, although it can also be found in deciduous forests and low mountain areas. The common squirrel is primarily herbivorous, feeding on seeds, sprouts, tubers, nuts, and fungi. But also gnaw the scales off the pineapples until you get to the pine nuts.

Bastard snake (Malpolononspessulanus)

It is the snake with largest size of the Iberian Peninsula and Europe, measuring up to 2.4 meters. With an elongated head and pointed snout, it has a depression between the nostrils and the eyes. The color of the adult specimens can vary between olive green, light gray and brown, while the belly is usually yellowish or whitish. It inhabits open areas, forest or scrub, crops and rural areas where temperatures are high. Are daytime and fast on your travels. Their diet is mainly based on other smaller snakes, rodents, other small mammals, insects, lizards and lizards.

Other species of fauna of Castilla-La Mancha

Here we leave you another list with a series of animals from Castilla-La Mancha that you may also find interesting:

  • Bonelli's Eagle (Hieraetus fasciatus)
  • Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)
  • Black vulture (Aegypius monachus)
  • Mountain goat or Hispanic goat (Capra pyrenaica)
  • River crab (Austropotamobius italicus, Austropotamobius pallipes)
  • Weasel (Mustela nivalis)
  • European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)
  • Gallipato (Pleurodeles waltl)

You can continue to find out about Gallipato: what it is, characteristics and curiosities in Ecologist Verde.

If you want to read more articles similar to Flora and fauna of Castilla-La Mancha, we recommend that you enter our Biodiversity category.

  • Castilla la Mancha. (2022). Nature and landscapes. Castilla-La Mancha: a place to visit.
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