5 PARTS of a PLANT and their FUNCTIONS - Schematics and VIDEO

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We all know how to identify at a glance the different parts of most plants, such as the trunk of a tree or the root of any of them. However, do you know well what are all the parts of plants and what functions do they fulfill?

It may seem like basic information, but whether you are starting to study it now or if you want to refresh your knowledge about plants or expand it, we invite you to join us in this article by Green Ecologist on the 5 parts of a plant and their functions with schematics. You sure learn something!

Summary of the parts of a plant

In summary, the important parts of plants are these five:

  • Stem
  • Estate
  • Leaves
  • Flower
  • Fruit

Next, we will explain each of these parts of plants and their functions.


The stem is the aerial part of the plant that among its functions has that of give support and structure to it, supporting its other aerial plant organs, such as leaves and flowers. Another of its main characteristics is that it presents negative geotropism, which means that it grows in the opposite direction to gravity. Although we have commented that it is the aerial part of the plant, the truth is that there are several types of stems and their functions:

Stem types

The stems can be classified in different ways, but the most common of them is to do it according to the environment in which they are found, which differentiates underground and aerial stems.

  • The underground stems they are subdivided in turn into tubers, rhizomes and bulbs.
  • The aerial stems They can be differentiated into upright, creeping, climbing and voluble, although there are special stems, such as those with thorns, stolons or tendrils.

Learn more about the Types of stems with this other post.

Stem functions

As we have said, one of the two main functions of the stem is to support the entire aerial part of the plant. The other is to transport the nutrients and substances through the interior of the plant. From the roots, the so-called raw sap rises to the leaves through the stem ducts, where it is enriched with carbon dioxide and gives rise to elaborated sap, the sustenance of the plant.

Here you can learn more about the Parts of a stem and their functions.

Image: SlidePlayer


We can all recognize the roots of most plants: that branched part that usually it is underground and with which it feeds. Let's go a little further:

What are roots and their types

Roots are the first organ that plants develop when they germinate, and arguably the most important. There are several types of roots, which can be classified in different ways:

Types of roots according to the anchor they provide to the plant:

  • Contractile roots
  • Stilts
  • Epiphytic roots

Types of roots according to their shape:

  • Axonomorphic roots
  • Fasciculated roots
  • Napiform roots
  • Branched roots
  • Tuberous roots

Types of roots according to the direction of growth:

  • Adventitious roots
  • Aquatic roots
  • Sucking roots
  • Aerial roots
  • Storage roots

Find out more about the Types of roots in this other post.

Root functions

  • As we have said, one of the main functions of roots is to absorb water and nutrients by the small absorbent hairs they have, food that then transmits to the rest of the plant through the stem.
  • The other function they fulfill is to anchor the entire structure of the plant to the environment, either with underground roots that grip deeply, or with aerial roots that anchor to other plants or surfaces.
  • Some roots have the ability to photosynthesize, or stick to other plants to absorb nutrients from them.

In this other post you can learn much more about the Parts of the root and its functions.

Image: Google Sites Natural Sciences


The leaves are one of the most recognizable parts of any plant, and despite their great diversity of shapes, sizes and even colors, they are present in almost all plants and, in addition, plant leaves have vital functions, such as photosynthesis, among others.

What are leaves and their types

They are plant organs, usually very thin and green in color, that grow from the branches or stem of plants. They can be classified in many different ways: according to their petiole, their edge, their rib or even their shape. Its most elemental and basic classification, on the other hand, is based on whether the plant keeps the leaves all year round, and they are perennial, or if it loses them in the cold months, and they are expired. Learn more about the types of leaves here.

Leaf functions

  • The leaves mainly fulfill three great functions:
  • They carry out photosynthesis, and thus obtain chemical energy from the sun's rays.
  • They allow the plant to breathe, exchanging gases at night.
  • They can perspire, letting excess water escape through them.

Learn more about the Parts of a sheet and their functions at this link.

Image: Pinterest

Flower, one of the most showy parts of a plant

The flower, the most attractive part for people in the case of many plants, is the responsible for the reproduction of the plant. Therefore, many times, flowers They are so brightly colored: to attract pollinating insects. However, all plants reproduce by flowers.

Types of flowers

There is an immense diversity of types of flowers, of very different sizes, colors, shapes and aromas. To learn more about this topic, we recommend you read this other post on Types of flowers with images.

Parts of the flower

The flower features calyx, corolla, stamens, filament and pistils. Pollen is found in the stamens, the male sexual organ of the plant, which when carried to the pistils, the female sexual organ, gives rise to the process of creating a new plant.

Expand your knowledge about flowers, these parts of plants and their functions that are so important, with this other Green Ecologist article on The parts of a flower and their functions.

Fruit or fruit

Not all plants bear fruit, but those that reproduce by sexual reproduction by seeds, tend to produce it. When the flower has been fertilized, it produces a seed and this forms the fruit around it. Learn more about Plant reproduction in this other article.

Types of fruit or fruit

As with leaves and flowers, there is a huge variety of fruits or fruits of vegetables. Any fruit you usually eat is the fruit of a plant or a tree, but so are the fruits that we eat as nuts. For you to learn more about the types of fruit or fruit and discover some strange ones, we recommend this other post about 30 rare tropical fruits.

Functions of plant fruits

The fruit function tends to be that of protect the seed and at the same time facilitate dispersal of this through animal activity, which will consume the fruits and deposit the seeds in other places, thus favoring the propagation of the species. If you want to learn more about it, in this other article we talk about the Parts of the fruit and their functions.

To finish, we leave you here below a video on this interesting topic of the parts of plants.

Image: UPV - Polytechnic University of Valencia

If you want to read more articles similar to Parts of a plant and their functions, we recommend that you enter our Biology category.

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