Did you know that all current cells have evolved from the same common cell? The amazing cellular world studied by a specific branch of science, cell biology, allows us to understand more and more the characteristics of the fundamental units of life: cells. With the help of microscopes, it has been possible to describe the variable appearance and function of cells, as well as to know their basic properties, which has allowed scientists to differentiate between two types of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
In this interesting article by Green Ecologist you will find detailed information about the amazing cellular world and learn about the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell with a comparative chart and schematics.
The main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell They are determined according to their size and the presence or absence of certain organelles and cellular structures.
Aside from the differences seen, there are also some similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell:
The meaning of eukaryote comes from the Greek, where "eu" means "true" and "karyon", "nucleus". Thus, the main defining characteristic of eukaryotic cells is the presence of a true core inside its cellular structure, which delimits and maintains the cell's DNA in an organized way.
In addition to the nucleus, among the characteristics of eukaryotic cells we find that they have a wide and complex cellular organelle system, among which are the surprising mitochondria capable of generating energy that the cell uses to feed and grow, the chloroplasts present in photosynthetic organisms, as well as the cytoskeleton responsible for cell movement and the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, in which they are manufactured , tarsport and modify innumerable substances and chemical components of the cell membrane and other structures.
In terms of their organization and way of life, complex eukaryotic cells are capable of living freely as single-celled organisms, (like the amoebas of the Protista kingdom or yeast, Fungi kingdom); as well as being able to form groups and create multicellular organisms of astonishing complexity, as are all the organisms of the kingdom Plantae and the kingdom Animalia, and some of the fungi of the kingdom Fungi.
For you to understand more about this type of cells, here we leave you an article on the Similarity and difference between animal and plant cells and a related video.
The prokaryotic cells are the most diverse cells, as well as the simpler and older, if we look at the evolutionary history of living organisms. Its own name, from the Greek "pro" which means "before", refers to its existence prior to the appearance of the other type of existing cells, eukaryotes.
The different prokaryotic cells that have flooded with cellular life practically all the habitats of the Earth, belong to the Monera kingdom and they are bacteria (Eubacteria) and archaea (Archea). Learn more about the Monera Kingdom: what it is, characteristics, classification and examples here.
If we use a high-resolution electron microscope, we could observe how the interior of prokaryotic cells is practically summarized in a matrix without a well-organized internal structure, where, in a single compartment, the cytoplasm (aqueous gel in which is accumulate chemical molecules) and cellular DNA. Likewise, we could see how a resistant protective layer surrounds said compartment, it is the cell wall.
Other major characteristics of prokaryotic cells They are its variable morphology (spherical, spiral or rod, etc.), as well as its rapid division through asexual reproduction, and its ability to exchange generic material with other organisms through certain structures present in its wall and membrane and cell.
Now that you know more about this topic, we encourage you to watch this explanatory video about the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell so that you know more details in a practical way.
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