EARTH SUMMIT: What is it, Agreements and Objectives

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Constituted as ambitious and hopeful projects of progress towards a more sustainable world and in harmony with nature, the Earth Summits are one of the most important international conferences. Although the best known is the famous Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, 1992), other conferences with the same name had already been held, the first being the Earth Summit held in Stockholm (Sweden , 1971), followed by the Summit that took place in Nairobi (Kenya, 1982).

Subsequently, more Earth Summits, led by representatives from around the world, signed environmental agreements and proposals in Berlin (Germany, 1995), Kyoto (1997), Buenos Aires (Argentina, 1998), Marrakech (Morocco, 2001) , Johannesburg (South Africa, 2002) and the commemorative Rio + 20 Summit (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2012).

In this Green Ecologist article you will learn more curiosities and details about the Earth Summit: what it is, agreements and objectives.

What is the Earth Summit

The Earth Summit, formally known as United Nations Conferences on Environment and Development (UNCTAD), supposes a international meeting in which heads of state of all the countries of the world participate, with the aim of reaching agreements focused on a progress in the field of the environment, sustainable development, climate change, biodiversity, health, waste management, and other related topics.

Among the different Earth Summits that have taken place throughout the 20th century, the most prominent was the Earth Summit held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, held from June 3 to 14, 1992, also known colloquially as "Río-92". Representatives from 179 countries participated in this global conference, including people linked to politics, diplomacy, science, journalism and about 400 NGOs.

This massive effort to find the optimal balance possible and the least impact of socio-economic human activities in relation to the environment, was a great milestone in international relations and in the development of international law.

In the next sections of the article we will delve into the different agreements and objectives that were specifically proposed in the Earth Summit "Rio-92", which was the largest meeting of heads of state and government held to date.

Earth Summit Agreements

Focused on environmental issues directly related to health, air pollution, waste management, housing, the management of the different ecosystems of the seas and mountains, as well as the management of water resources and sanitation and purification water, agricultural management and desertification; the "Rio-92" Earth Summit presented major agreements to address these and more related issues. Between sayings Earth Summit agreements stand out:

  • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development: In it, possible solutions to different types of environmental problems were proposed, among them the reduction of the production of those products that are toxic and polluting for the environment and the survival of living beings, the increase in the use of non-polluting energies and renewable; promote, by governments, efficient public transport systems, (thus reducing CO2 emissions and air and noise pollution), as well as raise awareness about the importance of saving water, taking into account the shortage of drinking water that already many countries of the world suffer.
  • Agenda 21: with the proposal of 21 measures focused on sustainable development and the consequent creation of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Learn more about this topic in this other Green Ecologist article on What is Agenda 21: summary and objectives.
  • Convention on Forests and Forestry Principles: It is an authorized declaration (without mandatory legal force), in which a series of principles are collected in order to achieve a global consensus regarding the management, conservation and sustainable development of any type of forests.
  • Proposal of the Framework Convention on Climate Change: with the aim of making the world population aware of the different problems associated with the phenomenon of Climate Change.
  • Convention on Biological Diversity: This important agreement establishes various measures for the conservation of biodiversity on a global scale, as well as for a sustainable, fair and equitable use, both of the elements that compose it, and of the benefits that result from the use of its genetic resources.

Objectives of the Earth Summit

The "Rio-92" Earth Summit invited citizens from every corner of the planet to lay the fundamental foundations of a world focused on prosperity, peace and sustainability. For this, different objectives of the Earth Summit and action points of great interest and importance, such as:

  • The commitment of the Governments of the countries participating in the Summit in favor of Sustainable Development, thus guaranteeing the needs of present generations without compromising the resources that future generations will have.
  • The balances and balances between the difficulties and the advances that have arisen to date, in relation to the environmental, legal, political and social issues established in the previous Earth Summits were studied and analyzed.
  • The ecological economy focused both on promoting sustainability and eradicating poverty in the world was proposed as a model economy.

Thus, from the Stockholm First Earth Summit (1972) until today, New York Climate Action Summit (2022) Summits have continued to be held at the international level to continue improving these aspects related to the environment, as well as to society, the economy, politics, and so on.

If you want to read more articles similar to Earth Summit: what it is, agreements and objectivesWe recommend that you enter our category of Projects, associations and NGOs.

  • Larena, A. (01/01/1993) What happened in 1992: the year of the Earth Summit. EFE Magazine: Green.
  • Drafting Team. The Earth Summit brings together countries from around the world for the environment. Manos Unidas: NGO against poverty in the world. Solutions for Climate Change.
  • Drafting EFE: Green (03/05/2002) Ten years after the Earth Summit. EFE Magazine: Green.
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