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Nicaragua is located in Central America with an area of 130,370 km2, bordering Costa Rica and Honduras, and with coasts that extend along the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. In addition, in its territory there are two large lakes: Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua. Nicaragua is one of the largest countries in Central America and has a very varied landscape, with unique freshwater habitats, spectacular marine environments, a great variety of forests. These ecosystems support great biodiversity, which is unfortunately in danger of disappearing.
If you want to know more about the flora and fauna of this tropical country, continue reading this interesting article by Ecologist Verde in which you will find a summary of the flora and fauna of Nicaragua.
Characteristics of the flora and fauna of Nicaragua
We begin by explaining a little about the flora and fauna of Nicaragua. The influence of climate and relief on the Nicaraguan flora and fauna They make both present certain characteristics:
- As for the Nicaraguan vegetationIt is characterized by being tropical and subtropical in nature and there are species of ferns, angiosperms and gymnosperms. In addition, the largest flora families found in Nicaragua are of Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae Y Caesalpiniaceae. The great diversity of flora found in this country is due to the large number of habitats found in the area, for example there are different types of forests, undulations in the terrain that create a great effect on diversity, hills of between 400 -500 meters, there are also currents or excess phenomena causing it to rain only in the low areas, therefore creating different habitats.
- The fauna of Nicaragua It is characterized by being very rich and varied, among it are anteaters, armadillos, different species of monkeys, there are also reptiles such as alligators, lizards or snakes, among the bird species there are herons, hummingbirds, magpies, pelicans, vultures, and even in this habitat is the quetzal. As for aquatic and curious species, freshwater sharks can be found in the lake called Great Lake.
Flora of Nicaragua
Between the Nicaraguan plants some species are found such as:
- Alstonia longif.webpolia or copalchi: It is a species of tree that is distributed throughout the evergreen forests of Nicaragua. They are between 8 and 12 meters high, their leaves are simple lanceolate and whorled, their flowers are white with a medium size and their fruits contain many seeds, found in two round woody follicles.
- Cojoba arborea or parrot plant: tree species that is mainly distributed in the Atlantic region. It measures between 15 and 30 meters, its leaves are bipinnate and alternate compound, its flowers have white heads and its fruits have the shape of deep red, wrinkled, twisted, elongated and velvety pods, which contain black seeds. The wood of this tree is used in the construction of furniture such as beds, chairs, tables, among others.
- Strelitzia reginae or plant bird of paradise: It is a perennial herbaceous plant, also known as bird flower or starflower. Although it is native to South Africa, it is also found in Nicaragua, among other South American countries. This herbaceous can reach up to 1.5 m in height. Its leaves are large, oval and oblong in shape, persistent, petiolate and grayish-green in color. The stem is supporting approximately 8 flowers composed of large sepals and yellow-orange color, and three petals of an intense blue color. This plant can be cared for in the garden or even in a large pot. Here you can learn about the care of the bird of paradise plant.
Fauna of Nicaragua
After having learned a little about some of the flora species in Nicaragua, we will now comment on the fauna, which is also very diverse. Between the Nicaraguan animals some species are found such as:
- Tayassu pecari or mountain pig: It is a mammal belonging to the wild boar family. It measures approximately one meter and can weigh up to 50 kg. It has a dark reddish coat, except under the lip and on the neck, which is white. This animal, also called white-bearded peccary, lives in a herd, and is highly threatened by hunting, since its meat is of great value, in addition to its threat is added the reduction of forests.
- Stenella attenuata or spotted dolphin: In general, this dolphin has a long and thin snout, both the lower and upper part of its jaws are dark, being separated by fine white lines. The belly, chin, and throat of these dolphins are white to light gray, and the flanks are separated into three bands of color, ranging from light to dark gray. They have a life expectancy of approximately 40 years, and in their adult life they reach up to 2.5 meters in length and weigh 120 kg.
- Ateles geoffroyi or spider monkey: It is found in Nicaragua, mainly in large natural reserves such as the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve and the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve. Their fur is black or brown and both their arms and legs are long and very flexible, and they also have a prehensile tail. Here you can read about Why the spider monkey is in danger of extinction.
To learn more about Nicaraguan fauna, we encourage you to read this other post about Animals in danger of extinction in Nicaragua.
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