Flora and Fauna of Europe - Characteristics and Examples

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The climate of Europe is very varied, that is why this great continent located in the northern hemisphere of planet Earth and surrounded by the Asian continent, the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a great diversity of flora and fauna.

If you want to know more about the flora and fauna of EuropeBe sure to read this interesting article by Ecologist Verde in which he will explain in detail, as well as give some examples of endangered species of fauna and flora.

Characteristics of the flora and fauna of Europe

The European continent presents a great diversity of animals, plants and habitats. Despite being a small area, this territory has a very varied mosaic of flora, fauna and wild habitats and cultural landscapes. The diversity and abundance of fauna and flora are due especially to climatic conditions, with a predominance of mild weather, although there are also other varieties of climates, such as the polar climate in the north.

However, anthropic activities have killed off many species and then humans have had to recover forests as in the case of the cork oak forests of the western Mediterranean. In general, throughout Europe there are national parks and nature reserves to be able to conserve flora and fauna of the continent, since there are many species that are in danger.

Flora of europe

Here are some species of plants of europe:

Daisy (Belli perennis)

It belongs to the Asteraceae family and is native to Europe and North Africa to Central Asia, although it can now be found all over the world. Its center is yellow and its thin and elongated petals are white.

Here you can learn about the different types of margaritas.

Jasmine (Jasminum officinale)

Common in the Mediterranean and tropical areas of Europe. Its flowers are white and emit an intense smell at night, which is why they are usually found in gardens.

Learn about various types of jasmine in this other article.

Red poppy (Papaver rhoeas)

Plants of the papaveráceas family, with straight and hairy stems. Its flowers are scarlet, flared, with 4 petals and two sepals.

Narcissus of the poets (Narcissus poeticus)

It is a bulbous plant belonging to the amaryllidaceae family that is usually found in Andorra. This beautiful flower usually measures about 5 cm and contains 6 white petals and a kind of trumpet-shaped tube that is usually orange or yellow.

Here we tell you what are the care of daffodils.

Fauna of europe

Here are some species of animals of europe:

European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos)

This subspecies of the brown bear extends from the Iberian Peninsula to Russia or Scandinavia, inhabiting tundra areas in the eastern area and wooded areas in the western area.

In this other post we talk about Why the brown bear is in danger of extinction.

European bison (Bison bonasus)

It is the largest mammal in Europe, it belongs to the Bovidae family and unlike other bison, they prefer to live in forests, instead of prairies. Unfortunately it is seriously threatened by what is trying to breed it in captivity.

European mink (Mustela lutreola)

It is a small mustelid that lives in aquatic areas such as lagoons, streams, rivers, coastal areas, swamps or marshes. It is brown in color and has white lips. To differentiate it from the American mink, we must pay particular attention to the lips, since the American mink does not have a white upper lip and also the color of the coat is darker.

European wild cat (Felis silvestris silvestris)

European wild cat, or also called European wild cat, is found inhabiting the forests of central Europe, extending from Spain to Turkey.

Common cod (Gadus morhua)

This species is found inhabiting the cold seas of the north, normally it is small in size, although some specimens have been found that have weighed up to 100Kg. It is a migratory species and highly appreciated in the world for its culinary value.

Endangered species of flora and fauna of Europe

Since 2015, the IUCN offers data that determine that 36 species have become extinct in Europe. Also, according to IUCN data, it is known that of 15,060 species that have been evaluated in Europe, approximately 1,680 are in danger of extinction. Here are some examples of species of flora and fauna of Europe in danger of extinction:

Plants of Europe in danger of extinction

  • Four Leaf Clover (Marsilea Quadrifolia)
  • Sea pineapple (Attraylis Preauxiana)
  • Dragon tree from Gran Canaria (Dracaena tamaranae)
  • Chamomile from Sierra Nevada (Artemisa Granatensis)
  • Alboran dandelion (Diplotaxis Siettiena)
  • Pinsapo (Abies Pinsapo)
  • Silene de Ifach or pink slave (Silene hifacensis)
  • Clog orchid (Cypripedium calceolus)
  • Blue jade tree (Strongylodon macrobotrys)
  • Greek fir (Abies Cephalónica)
  • Common birch (Betula Pendula)

Animals of Europe in danger of extinction

  • Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus)
  • Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus)
  • Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus)
  • Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys kempii)
  • Iberian imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti)
  • European eel or common eel (Anguilla anguilla)
  • Pond bat (Myotis Dasycneme)
  • European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
  • Ivory seagull (Pagophila eburnea)
  • Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris virgata)
  • Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus)
  • Wolverine (Gulo gulo)
  • Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis)
  • Corsican deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus)
  • Karpathos frog (Pelophylax cerigensis)
  • Common squirrel or red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris)

If you want to read more articles similar to Flora and fauna of Europe, we recommend that you enter our Biodiversity category.

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