Peru is considered one of the 17 megadiverse countries that exist. But what does this mean? A country is classified as megadiverse when it has high levels of biodiversity together with a high degree of endemism. This classification is under the supervision of the Environmental Conservation Monitoring Center, which belongs to the United Nations Environment Program. Faced with this fact, the great biodiversity of Peru is undeniable.
For this reason, from Ecologist Verde we want to publicize some species of flora and fauna of Peru. If you want to know more about the subject, we invite you to continue reading this article.
Peru presents a great diversity of ecoregions, adding a total of 11. The truth is that there are many species of flora and fauna in Peru and, therefore, it is difficult to find a factor in common between so many species. However, Peru can be divided, in very general terms, into 3 large regions. Starting from this division into regions, we will mention some characteristics of the biodiversity of each one of them.
If you want to continue learning more about the subject, we recommend this other article on Biodiversity in Peru: characteristics and importance.
Next we will develop the most relevant species that are part of the Peruvian vegetation.
Orchids are a group of plants native to South America that are very present in Peru. They are epiphytic or terrestrial plants, with very showy flowers. In Peru they can be found both in the jungle region, as the species Phragmipedium kovachii, in the region of mountains and mountains, for example the species Masdevallia veitchiana and, also, in the coastal region, as is the species Cattleya maxima.
If you want to know more about Epiphytic plants: what they are, types and examples, visit this other article that we recommend from Green Ecologist.
This species (Puja raimondii) is native to the region of mountains and mountains and, unfortunately, it is one of the plants in danger of extinction of Peru. According to the IUCN, it has been classified as in danger of extinction mainly due to the severe modification that its habitat has undergone.
The Peruvian cotton species (Gossypium barbadense) is indigenous to the coastal region of the country. It is a shrub that produces cotton fibersIt also has antifungal properties and some use it for its medicinal benefits to treat hypertension.
Mahogany native to South America is scientifically called as Swietenia macrophylla and, in Peru, it is found specifically in the Amazon rainforest region. It is a tree of almost 50 meters high, whose wood has an important value in cabinetmaking.
Other plant species of Peru
Do not hesitate to read this article by Green Ecologist on Plants in danger of extinction in Peru to know more about the vegetation of Peru.
In the next paragraphs we will develop those species that are part of the animals of Peru.
The spectacled bearTremarctos ornatus) is the only species of bear present in South America and, precisely, its distribution covers the entire region of mountains and mountains of Peru. This species is characterized by the presence of white or yellow spots near its eyes that resemble glasses, hence its name. Here you can read Why the spectacled bear is in danger of extinction.
This species of penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) has a distribution that covers the entire coastal region of Peru and part of the coast of Chile. Sadly, it is one of the animals in danger of extinction of Peru, as it has been classified by the IUCN as vulnerable to extinction. Its state of vulnerability is due to the decrease in its main food: anchovy.
This peculiar bird (Rupicola peruvianus) is native to both the Amazon region and the mountain range region. It stands out for the vivid coloration of plumage, which is typical of males. In contrast, females have a somewhat duller brown coloration.
The dotted frogBoana punctatus) is an endemic species of South America whose distribution includes the Amazon region of Peru. Curiously, its coloration changes depending on the day or night: during the day its back is rather light green with dark spots and at night the back turns reddish.
The big-headed stick lizard (Enyalioides laticeps) is a species of lizard endemic to the Amazon and its distribution covers all of eastern Peru. It is characterized by its arboreal and diurnal behavior and its diet based mainly on arthropods.
We show you 20 endangered animals of Peru so you can learn more about the animals of Peru.
If you want to read more articles similar to Flora and fauna of Peru, we recommend that you enter our Biodiversity category.Bibliography