6 natural regions of Norway - Map and photos

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Norway is a country in Northern Europe that is part of the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Nordic countries. Its capital is Oslo and its population is approximately 5.4 million inhabitants in a territory with a total area of 385,207 square kilometers.

To the north it is bordered by the Barents Sea, to the northeast by Russia and Finland, to the east by Sweden, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the south by the Skagerrak Strait and the North Sea. Because its location is very close to the north pole of the Earth, temperatures are usually very low. In addition, most of its flora and fauna are adapted to temperate and polar climates.

The country belongs to the Palearctic ecozone and its geographical and climatic conditions allow it to divide its territory into numerous natural regions. If you are interested in knowing more about it, stay and read this article by Ecologist Verde and discover the 6 natural regions of Norway.

North norway

Also called Nord-Norge or Northern Norway, it is the region that includes more than a third of the territory continental part of the country. By bordering with Finland, Sweden and Russia, it is considered a multicultural region.

It is usually called "the land of the midnight sun" and is characterized by its mild weather with temperatures ranging from -21 ° C to 21 ° C. Its relief contains plains, mountains and plateaus, and includes the Finnmark Plateau and part of the Scandinavian Alps.

Thanks to its vast extension, it houses numerous ecoregions Norwegians such as Russian and Scandinavian taiga, tundra, and coastal coniferous forests. Its flora is composed of numerous types of:

  • Lichens
  • Mosses
  • Ferns
  • Coniferous and deciduous trees such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European birch (Betula pendula), aspen (Populus tremula) and common alder (Alnus glutinosa).

Between fauna of the region we can highlight species such as the elk (Alces alces), the boreal lynx (Lynx lynx), The grizzly (Ursus arctos), the European eagleHaliaeetus albicilla), the common goose (anser anser) and the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus).

If you want to know more details, do not hesitate to visit this other article on What is an ecoregion.

West Norway or Fjord Norway

Vestlandet, Vest-Norge, West Norway or Fjord Norway is the most touristic and commercial region from Norway. It is one of the most beautiful areas of the country and occupies the entire coastal strip of the country. It is constituted by the ecoregions of coastal coniferous forests, forests and mountain grasslands of Scandinavian birch trees and Russian and Scandinavian taiga.

Has a mild and rainy climate, with annual temperatures that vary between -1 ° C and 25 ° C. Its relief is fundamentally mountainous, with the presence of numerous grasslands, plateaus, valleys and fjords.

A fjord is a narrow seawater inlet to a coastal valley that was formed thanks to the incidence of glaciers. In Norway, the fjords are points of tourist, fishing and mining interest; and the most famous are the Oslo fjord, the Sognefjord and the Geirangerfjord.

Despite the fact that in this region the sunlight is scarce and the sky almost always remains cloudy, the flora and fauna are quite diverse. In this way, the vegetation of West Norway is based on:

  • Common oak (Quercus robur).
  • Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
  • Common hazel (Corylus avellana).
  • Northern ash (Fraxinus excelsior).
  • Norway Spruce (Picea abies), in great abundance.

The Norwegian fauna that we find in this region is:

  • Common deer (Cervus elaphus).
  • Glutton (Gulo gulo).
  • Norwegian cod (Gadus morhua).
  • Boreal shark (Somniosus microcephalus).
  • White-nosed dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris).
  • Killer whale (Orcinus orca). In this Green Ecologist article that we recommend you can read about Why the killer whale is in danger of extinction.
  • European beaver (Castor fiber).
  • Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
  • Norwegian Bullhead (Micrenophrys lilljeborgii).
  • Whiting (Merlangius merlangus).
  • Common herring (Clupea harengus).

We can also find a wide variety of mollusks, crustaceans and seabirds such as the common eider (Somateria mollissima) and the atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica).

If you want to know more about Mollusks: characteristics, types and examples or Crustaceans: what they are, types and examples, do not hesitate to visit these other articles that we suggest.

Eastern norway

Østlandet, Austlandet or East Norway is the Norway's most populous region with more than 50% of the population. It is separated from the coastal region by the Scandinavian Alps and is home to Oslo (the country's capital) and Galdhøpiggen and Glittertind (the two highest mountains in the territory).

Most of this natural region is made up of the Russian and Scandinavian taiga ecoregions and Scandinavian birch forests and mountainous grasslands. Annual temperatures vary between -7 ° C and 22 ° C, and the land is much more fertile than in other regions of the country.

Among the species that make up its fauna we can highlight:

  • Grey Wolf (Canis lupus).
  • Red fox (Vulpes vulpes).
  • Stoat (Mustela erminea).
  • ChaffinchFringilla coelebs).
  • Snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus).
  • Nuthatch (European sitta).

Central Norway

Known as Midt-Norge or Trøndelag, it is the natural region that comprises the central part of the Norwegian territory. It separates the Østlandet and Vestlandet regions from the Nord-Norge region and is one of the more fertile lands from all over Norway.

It is comprised of the Russian and Scandinavian taiga ecoregions, coastal coniferous forests, and Scandinavian birch forests and mountainous grasslands. Its vegetation is that of a mixed temperate forest: has a large variety of ferns, lichens and mosses, scots pines (Pinus sylvestris), European birch trees (Betula pendula), rowan of hunters (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruces (Spruce abies).

As for the fauna that inhabits, we can find:

  • Martas (Tuesday tuesday).
  • Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).
  • Vulgar lemmingsLemmus lemmus).
  • Brünnich Guillemots (Uria lomvia).
  • Moose (Moose moose).
  • ReindeerRangif.webper tarandus).
  • Brown bears (Ursus arctos). You can learn more about why the brown bear is in danger of extinction in this other article.
  • Snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus)
  • Boreal owlets (Aegolius funereus), among others.

Here you can find more information about the temperate forest: characteristics, flora and fauna that inhabit it.

South norway

Another of the natural regions in Norway is Sørlandet or southern Norway. It's about the southernmost region from Norway and bordered to the south by the North Sea, to the northeast by Austlandet and to the northwest by Vestlandet.

It has a mountainous relief full of valleys and plateaus, rainfall is moderate and the ambient temperature varies between -1 ° C and 30 ° C. This region is made up of the ecoregions of mixed sarmatic forest, Russian and Scandinavian taiga, and Scandinavian birch forests and mountainous grasslands.

Among the regional flora we can find a great variety of woody plants:

  • Mountain elms (Ulmus glabra).
  • Royal maples (Acer platanoides).
  • Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris).
  • European birches (Betula pendula).
  • Downy birch trees (Betula pubescens).
  • Common hazelnuts (Corylus avellana).

The Norwegian fauna in this area is made up of animals such as:

  • Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris).
  • Common weasel (Mustela nivalis).
  • Red Deer (Cervus elaphus).
  • Boreal lynx (Lynx lynx).
  • Arctic ternSterna paradisaea).
  • Central European Green Frog (Pelophylax lessonae).
  • Arctic trout (Salvelinus alpinus).
  • Common seal (Phoca vitulina). Discover in this article the Seals in danger of extinction.
  • Common porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

Svalbard and other islands

The Svalbard Archipelago is the largest non-continental territory from Norway. It is made up of a group of islands located in the Arctic Ocean, specifically in the Barents Sea.

More than half of the archipelago is covered in ice, and its climate is characterized by being cold, dry, with strong winds and little rainfall. The annual temperature oscillates between -38 ° C and 21 ° C, and from November to February, does not have the presence of sunlight.

As in all tundra, the diversity of species is quite limited. The low fertile soil allows the growth of certain herbaceous plants and grasses, ferns, mosses and lichens. Among the representatives of the fauna of the region we have:

  • Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).
  • Reindeer (Rangif.webper tarandus).
  • Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus). Is the polar bear in danger of extinction? Find out the answer in this article by Green Ecologist.
  • Tridactyl gull (Rissa tridactyla).
  • Boreal fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis).
  • Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus). In this other post you can find out the Difference between seal, sea lion and walrus.

Some other Norwegian islands that have characteristics similar to those of the Svalbard archipelago are Jan Mayen Island and Sørøya Island.

If you want to read more articles similar to Natural regions of Norway, we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category.

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