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Our planet is full of nature and, thanks to it, the development of the life of species and the proper functioning of ecosystems is possible, so there is a great wealth of biodiversity. Among so much nature, are the ecoregions, characterized by being unique and different biogeographic units. Do you know any of the ecoregions that are present in our environment? Not very sure or sure you know what exactly they are?
If you want to know what is an ecoregionAs well as discovering which are some of the best known, continue reading this interesting article by Green Ecologist in which we explain it and, in addition, we also talk about the difference between ecoregion and biome since, sometimes, you can fall into error to think that they are the same.
What is an ecoregion - definition
There are several definitions of an ecoregion, however, the World Wildlife Fund for Nature, gives the definition of ecoregion such as a large area of water or land that has a distinctive set of natural communities. These natural communities share characteristics such as: environmental conditions, species and ecological dynamics that interact in such a way that they ensure long-term maintenance.
Difference between biome and ecoregion
It cannot be said that an ecoregion and a biome are the same. They are different things because, on the one hand, the ecoregion is a biogeographic area that houses a fauna, flora, ecology, geomorphology with a unique and different character.
On the other hand, the biome refers to a biotic community characterized by being physiognomically uniform in terms of its vegetation, which is the result of climatic conditions and the type of soil that the territory has. Here you can learn much more about what are biomes, their types and examples.
Examples of ecoregions
On the planet we can find terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecoregions. Next, we will show some examples that will highlight some ecoregions of Peru, due to the great biodiversity that characterizes this territory, but we will also talk about other ecoregions of other countries:
Examples of terrestrial ecoregions
- The palm tree savanna: occupies part of Bolivia and Peru, is characterized by its endemic biodiversity. In it there is a great diversity of animal and plant species. The climate of this area is highly variable and has an average annual temperature that ranges between 20 ° C and 27 ° C, its relief is flat and its soils are poor in organic matter. We are facing an ecoregion that its soils can suffer floods such as drought, that is why the flora that predominates in it is adapted to the two regimes. Learn more about this Peruvian ecoregion with this other article about the Palm Savannah: characteristics, flora and fauna.
- The puna: It belongs to Peru and is a high-altitude ecoregion with a climate with very cold temperatures that extend up to 5000 meters above sea level, and once this height is exceeded, we would have a cold climate. The most representative fauna of this area are species that belong to the camelid family such as the vicuña, the alpaca or the llama. As for the flora, the most common to find are shrub species such as reeds.
- The wasteland: it extends from Colombia to the north of Peru, characterized by a mountainous relief with altitudes that can reach up to 5000 meters above sea level. It has a great biological wealth adapted to the extreme climatic conditions that the area presents; with intense temperature fluctuations. As a consequence, both its flora and fauna have developed some mechanisms to face these conditions. In this link you will see more information about the Páramo: characteristics, flora and fauna.
Example of a freshwater ecoregion
- The Paraná Delta: It is located in the municipality of San Fernando, in the province of Buenos Aires and is classified as a biosphere reserve due to its natural characteristics and its great biodiversity of flora and fauna. It is a territory formed by the dragging of sediments from different tributaries such as the Bermejo River and has a temperate climate.
Examples of marine ecoregions
- The Mesoamerican reef: It is the second longest reef on the planet, extending for 1000 km of coasts of the countries of Belize, Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. In this ecoregion there are populations of sea turtles, manatees and whale sharks, in addition there are more than 500 different species of fish, about 350 species of mollusks, some of crustaceans and approximately 70 species of coral. Not only is it the habitat of a great variety of flora and fauna species, it also acts to protect the coasts from hurricanes, erosion and strong waves.
- The cold seas: Ecoregion in Peru with very cold waters that come from the Humboldt current. Plankton predominates in these seas, giving a green hue to the water and serves as food for the life of all those plants and animals that are inhabiting them.
- The tropical sea in Peru: located on the north coast of Peru where temperatures are between 19 ° C and 23 ° C. Its waters are warm that contribute to the formation of clouds that will later lead to rains. The vegetation found in this area is very abundant, in addition to having species of flora characteristic of warm waters such as mangroves or mangroves. Regarding the fauna, you can find the beautiful shark. The crocodile of tumbes, lobsters, crabs and turtles.
If you want to discover more about what is an ecoregion and see more about the ecoregions of Peru and their characteristics, we invite you to see this other article.
If you want to read more articles similar to What is an ecoregion, we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category.