6 NATURAL REGIONS of COLOMBIA - Map, characteristics and summary with PHOTOS

Help the development of the site, sharing the article with friends!

Colombia, located in South America, has an area of 2,070,408 km2, including both its land and sea areas. Its territory is divided into 6 natural regions and each one of them has unique characteristics making this country have a great ecological wealth. In addition, its population is multicultural, due to the miscegenation between the indigenous Americans of this region, Europeans and Africans, making it a very enriched country in many ways.

If you want to know what are the 6 natural regions of Colombia, its map and its characteristics, as well as the departments that are located within each region, do not miss this interesting article by Ecologist Verde.

What are the natural regions of Colombia and its departments

Before delving into the subject of Colombian natural regionsWe recommend that if you have doubts about this concept, you first read this other article on What is a natural region and its characteristics.

Once the concept of natural region is clear, we explain what are the natural regions of Colombia. In this country, up to 6 natural regions can be differentiated, which are divided by their homogeneity following criteria of physical geography, related to relief, climate, hydrography, vegetation, type of soil, among others. These natural regions are:

  • Andean
  • Amazon
  • Caribbean
  • Insular
  • Orinoquía
  • peaceful

As we have seen, Colombia is divided into 6 natural regions, but it is also divided into departments. The departments refer to the divisions with a political and administrative character and, therefore, each department has its own ruler. Next, the different natural regions of Colombia and its departments:

  • Andean natural region: Antioquia, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Huila, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima and Valle del Cauca.
  • Natural region of the Amazon: Amazonas, Caquetá, Guainía, Guaviare, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés and Vichada.
  • Caribbean natural region: Atlántico, Bolívar, Cesar, Córdoba, La Guajira, Magdalena, Chocó (Acandí and Ungía), Antioquia and Sucre.
  • Insular natural region: San Andrés and Providencia, Bolívar (Rosario Islands), Bolívar (San Bernardo Islands), Cauca (Gorgona Island), Valle del Cauca (Malpelo Island).
  • Orinoquía natural region: Arauca, Casanare, Meta and Vichada.
  • Pacific natural region: Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Chocó and Nariño.

Here below you can see the map of Colombia with its natural regions.

Andean region or the Colombian Andes

The Andean region has a great natural diversity and the Andes mountains. The climate of this region is very changeable since there are great variations in altitude, being able to find three types of climate: tropical, subtropical and temperate. Regarding its biodiversity, it presents a unique fauna and flora: orchids, cinchona and purse are the most representative plant species and the hummingbird, condor and red fox are the animal species that represent the region.

Here you can learn more about the Andean Region: characteristics, flora and fauna.

Amazon or Colombian Amazon region

In the natural region of the Amazon of Colombia There are abundant equatorial rains and a warm climate with a temperature that varies between 22 C ° and 28 C °, which allows the development of the tropical forest and the existence of a fauna enriched with a large number of mammals and amphibians, in which highlights the diversity of endemic reptile and bird species. In this region we can find species such as macaws, toucans, jaguars, alligators and many more.

If you want to discover more about this Colombian natural region, we recommend these other Green Ecologist articles about:

  • 30 animals of the Amazon.
  • Plants of the Amazon.
  • What are the indigenous peoples of the Amazon, such as the Yurí and the Nukak of the natural region of the Amazon of Colombia.

Natural region of the Colombian Caribbean

Mainly, this region is characterized by a tropical climate. In most of the year they reach 30 C °, although there are exceptions. The Caribbean region is the driest in all of Colombia, giving an average between 500 mm and 2000 mm of rain per year.

As we have said, there are exceptions with respect to the climate, in La Guajira there is a desert climate in which it is very common to find cactus species adapted to high temperatures and the scarcity of water. And also in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta due to the high altitude that it presents, in this area all the thermal floors occur. Having temperatures of 0 ° in the peaks and 30 ° in the lower areas. In the Sierra Nevada, there are abundant rains in the autumn months, making it possible for up to 22 rivers to rise.

Insular natural region of Colombia

The climates that predominate in the insular region, formed by islands and isletsThey are tropical and dry, with temperatures ranging from 20 ° C to 30 ° C to 40 ° C, in addition there are rainy and humid seasons and dry seasons. Tropical and mangrove ecosystems are characteristic of the Island region and in it you can find corals that give color and beauty to the Caribbean Sea along with other species such as mollusks, starfish, sea sponges and a great variety of marine fish.


In the Orinoquía natural region there is a hot and dry climate, in which the vegetation of savanna and natural pastures predominates, where there are plant species such as the yellow guayacán, the ceibas, the epiphytes, the grasses or the moriche palms. There is also a very varied fauna in which species such as the red corocora, the black guio, the boa constrictor, the Orinoco caiman, the deer, the macaws, the tiger, the cotudo monkey, the anaconda, among others, stand out. This region is located in a great plain which is crossed by the rivers that flow into the Orinoco and are characterized by the gallery forest that develop along them.

Natural region of the Colombian Pacific

The climate of the natural region of the Pacific of Colombia It is tropical with an average monthly temperature of approximately 24 ° C and high humidity. Marine species such as sperm whales, humpback whales, sharks and crappies, shrimp and crabs abound in its habitat. Also among the most important land animals are the anteater, wild boar, marmoset, marmoset, sloth, freshwater caiman, harpy eagle, as well as small amphibians and reptiles.

Regarding its flora, there are up to four species of mangroves due to the number of rivers that cross the region: white, black, red and piñuelo mangroves, the piñuelo being the most abundant species. But we not only find mangrove species, there are also plants such as palm trees, large-leaf mahogany, ash, fern, and mulberry. The peaceful natural region of Colombia has 8 national parks with the objective of conserve its biodiversity because of the danger it has of disappearing.

If you want to read more articles similar to Natural regions of Colombia, we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category.

You will help the development of the site, sharing the page with your friends
This page in other languages: