A biome is defined as a biogeographic category in which different ecosystems can be found with specific climatic, flora and fauna characteristics. Among the departments of Guatemala, seven different biomes can be distinguished, which are classified as follows: humid tropical forest, tropical rain forest, mountain forest, chaparral or thorn scrub, mountain forest, humid subtropical forest and humid tropical savanna; each of these biomes has its own native species.
If you want to know more about the types of biomes of GuatemalaContinue reading this interesting article by Ecologist Verde, which will also talk about the flora and fauna of Guatemala and also about some of the ecosystems of Guatemala.
The humid tropical forest is representative of the Petén region that is located in the north of the country, with an altitude of 900 meters above sea level. It is characterized by a flat relief, poor soils and karst-type landscapes, it also presents a great diversity of fauna and a lush jungle. As for the climate, it has a hot and humid climate and there is not a great difference between the rainy season and the dry season. Regarding its flora, this biome has a large number of broad-leaved tree species.
Before reading on, if you still have some questions or want to expand your basic knowledge on this topic, we recommend you read these other posts about What are biomes, their types and examples and Types of terrestrial biomes.
The tropical rain forest is another of the jungles of Guatemala, although this is similar to the humid tropical forest, they differ mainly in rainfall and atmospheric humidity, being in the tropical rain forest much higher. This biome is located at 1,300 meters above sea level and is characterized by a much more complex vegetation. The prevailing climate is warm wet and it does not have a well-defined dry season. Some of the ecosystems that can be found in this biome are high evergreen forests, estuaries, mangroves, savannas and associated grasslands, among others. As in the humid tropical forest, broad-leaved trees also predominate in this forest.
To further expand your knowledge, here you can learn about What animals live in the rainforest.
This biome, as its name suggests, is located in mountainous areas with slopes that are marked between 1,100 and 2,900 meters above sea level. The climate that characterizes it is between mild to warm humid in the day and cooler at night, in addition, how much with great amount of precipitations, concentrating the rainiest period between April and September. It has a high diversity of habitat and vegetation associated with tree ferns, pines and avocados, among others. The high humidity causes a great diversity of epiphytes to be observed in the treetops.
The chaparral or also called thorny scrub can be found discontinuously distributed in the central and eastern region of Guatemala, in valleys that are surrounded by mountains where the rain shadow phenomenon is generated. This phenomenon as a consequence brings dry areas of very low rainfall. Due to the scarcity of water in its territory there are plant species from arid areas, such as plants with thorns. This biome is very fragile and is located between 100 and 1,000 meters above sea level.
You can read more about this type of terrestrial biome in this other post Thorn forest: what it is, characteristics, flora and fauna.
The mountain forest in terms of its biodiversity is reminiscent of the biodiversity of North America. His variety of species is scarce and in it only a stratum is differentiated and the understory characterized by being very poor. However, conifers abound in it, or in general plants that reproduce by cones. There are also some endemic fauna and flora that can be found in this biome. Its climate does present a clear difference between hot season and cold season, and is distributed between altitudes ranging from 2,000 to 4,200 meters above sea level.
The humid subtropical jungle of Guatemala is exactly located in the Pacific region called Boca-costa, it is located between 800 and 1,200 meters above sea level, along the Pacific slope of the volcanic chain. The volcanic chain serves as a barrier to the southern winds that arrive loaded with humidity, so there is a high rainfall on the slopes of the chain. The vegetation present is very diverse and its climate ranges from warm to temperate.
The humid tropical savanna is located along the Pacific coast with an altitude ranging from sea level to approximately 1,000 meters above sea level. Its original vegetation is made up of mangroves, savannas, deciduous forests and evergreen forests. However, this biome is heavily transformed and replaced by agricultural landscapes. Despite the alteration of the landscape to be used for agricultural activities, there are still some remnants of forests and vegetation native to the area. The reason that this biome is so altered is due to the large amount of rivers that descend from the volcanic chain, since thanks to these the humid tropical savannah has become a very productive area.
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