6 NATURAL RESOURCES of COLOMBIA - Examples explained!

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Colombia possesses, thanks to its topographic diversity, a great variety of natural resources that are used by human beings to satisfy their vital needs and economic development. The climatic variety that it presents makes it possible for there to be a large and important agricultural and livestock production. Fishing and the forestry industry are also important and, in addition, it is a country with strong potential in terms of energy resources.

If you want to know what are the main natural resources of ColombiaContinue reading this interesting article by Ecologist Verde in which, in addition, it will be shown which is the natural resource that generates the most wealth in Colombia.

What are natural resources

Natural resources are those elements that nature provides spontaneously, without human intervention. exist renewable and non-renewable natural resourcesThese are used by human beings and satisfy their needs for their vital and economic development. Although it is true that natural resources are offered by nature spontaneously, it is also true that many of them are intervened by human hands to obtain greater yield and production from them, as can be the case with crops. Between the natural riches of Colombia there are gold, silver, emeralds, oil, coal, many animal and plant species, among others.

We recommend you read this other article to go deeper into the Definition of natural resources and their types.


Coffee crops are one of the pillars of the social and economic stability of the country, being among the countries with the highest coffee production in the world.

However, in recent years, factors such as climate change, the evolution of the territorial and local socio-political scenarios that define the environment for production and also the geography, are causing great transformations in the main coffee departments.


Cocoa, or scientifically named as Theobroma cacao L, For about 2,000 years it has been part of the economy of many peoples of the world. Colombia is a tropical country with optimal geographic and climatic conditions for cocoa planting. Mainly, cocoa is used as food and different by-products can be extracted from it, such as cocoa liquors, chocolates, cosmetic products, etc.


The banana cultivation In the Colombian country, it is considered a traditional activity that is part of the country's economy and, in addition, it has a significant geographic presence and an important socioeconomic contribution.

It is in the department of Antioquia where the main production of this Colombian natural resource. Today the Colombian banana is widely exported to different countries, as it is characterized by its excellent flavor and texture, which is why it is widely recognized as a tropical ethnic food.


Emerald is a mineral cyclosilicate of aluminum and beryllium that, in addition, in its composition there are also small amounts of chromium and vanadium, which are responsible for its green color. Colombia is one of the main producers world of gem quality emerald, being these, mainly, in the department of Boyacá. It is a stone of great value, demanded for the manufacture of jewelery and for sale to museums and collectors but, in addition, it is especially linked to religious and cultural factors.


Colombia is the country with the largest coal reserves in all of Latin America, thus satisfying domestic demand and guaranteeing its participation in the international market. The coal industry It is a great economic potential in Colombia, generating money and a large number of jobs.

Coal is an inorganic mineral, composed mainly of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, which originates in chemical and physical transformations of large plant accumulations that have been deposited over the years in swamps, lagoons or deltas. It is classified among energetic materials, since it is used for power generation.

Here you can learn more about how coal is formed.


The oil industry is another of the economic engines and main natural resources of Colombia. Oil is a mixture of organic compounds, mainly hydrocarbons that are not soluble in water. In this other article we will tell you more about How oil is formed.

Oil is of great importance and is in high demand, since it is not only used for energy purposes for agriculture, industries, transportation and domestic use, but also for other products such as paraffins, asphalt, plastics, paints, containers, etc.

What is the importance of natural resources in Colombia

As we have said before, natural resources serve to meet subsistence needs of living beings. In the case of the human being, among these needs are those related to food, health, economy and leisure.

In the case of Colombia, many of them are great great economic potentials, so that their mismanagement leads to a negative impact on the country's economy and the environment. As a consequence of these impacts, the rest of the needs could not be fully satisfied, some of them, as in the case of food and health, essential for human life.

Now that you have learned about Colombian natural resources, we encourage you to learn more about this country with this other article about the natural regions of Colombia.

If you want to read more articles similar to Natural resources of Colombia, we recommend that you enter our category of Other environment.

  • CRU Consulting. (2022). UPME (Mining and Energy Planning Unit). Emeralds Characterization and analysis of the international mineral market in the short, medium, and long term, valid for the year 2035: http://www1.upme.gov.co/simco/Cifras-Sectoriales/Datos/mercado-inter/Producto4_Esmeraldas_final_v2.pdf
  • Carvajal García, M., Zuluaga Arango, P., Ocampo López, O. L. and Duque Gómez, D. (2022 - 2022). Notes CENES Volume 38, Number 68, ISSN 0120-3053. Banana exports as a rural development strategy in Colombia: http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/cenes/v38n68/0120-3053-cenes-38-68-113.pdf
  • Ocampo López, O. L. and Álvarez Herrera, L. M. (2016 - 2022). CENES Notes Volume 36, Number 64. Trend in coffee production and consumption in Colombia: http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/cenes/v36n64/0120-3053-cenes-36-64-00139.pdf
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